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Optical dating techniques

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The ‘quartz technique’ for limestone monuments containing traces of quartz enables their dating with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques.

The surface luminescence (thermoluminescence, TL or OSL) dating has been developed and further refined on various aspects of equivalent dose determination, complex radiation geometry, incomplete bleaching etc.

This reduction of luminescence as a function of depth fulfils the prerequisite criterion of daylight bleaching.

When these quartz or feldspar minerals are exposed to the ionising radiation emitted by the radioactive isotopes in zircons, electrons within the crystals migrate and become trapped in their crystal structure. Turnaround time is several weeks to several months and very dependent on the time taken to prepare the samples, with organic rich samples taking the longest. All sediments contain trace minerals including uranium, thorium and potassium.These slowly decay over time and the ionising radiation they produce is absorbed by other constituents of the sediments such as quartz and feldspar.Common silicate minerals like quartz and potassium feldspar contain lattice-charge defects formed during crystallization and from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation.These charge defects are potential sites of electron storage with a variety of trap-depth energies.Discoveries in the 1980s and 1990s that exposure of quartz and feldspar grains to a tunable light source, initially with lasers and later by light emitting diodes, yield luminescence components that are solar reset within seconds to minutes, expanded greatly the utility of the method (Huntley et al., 1985; Hütt et al., 1988; Aitken, 1998).